Radio is a form of transmitting energy by use of waves (It is the act of sending electrical waves from one point to another without a direct physical connection such as the use of wires).


In the discussions that follow, the subject matter of radio is going to be examined in details by touching on such pertinent issues as the definition of common terms, a brief look at how FM radio transmission works, and the various types of FM radio transmission.





This is the device that sends out radio signals. It is basically a set of equipment that is used to generate and transmit the electromagnetic waves that carry messages or signals of a radio.



It is the component of a radio network that comprises speakers or apparatus that contain an ear piece which converts electrical signals to sounds.


Radio Signals

Also called radio waves, these are special types of electromagnetic radiation whose frequencies range between 3 kHz and 300 GHz and are manly used to carry signals from a transmitter to a receiver.


Carrier Signal/Wave

It refers to a waveform that is modulated (modified) with an input signal in order to relay radio signals from one location to another. It generally has a frequency that is higher than that of the input signal and primarily transmits signals through space in the form of electromagnetic waves.


Base Station

This is a radio receiver/transmitter that serves as the hub of the wireless radio network. Base stations are erected at strategic locations to relay radio signals throughout a target area.


Frequency Modulation (FM)

This is the act of modulating (modifying) radio or any other electromagnetic wave by varying its frequency in order to enable it carry audio signals.




Radio transmission basically works by converting sound waves into electrical signals, transmitting them to a remote location, and then reconverting the electrical signals back to sound waves at the reception end.


At the radio station, a microphone is used to convert sound waves into electrical signals. The electrical signals are then relayed to a transmitter by use of physical wire connections. At the transmitter, the signals are boosted, combined with a carrier signal, assigned a unique frequency, and then relayed to a very tall antenna which in turn broadcasts it to the entire geographical locale of interest.


A radio receiver, which in most cases is a radio handset, picks the electrical signals at the receiving end. The electrical signals are then converted into sound waves by a receiver to enable them to be comprehended by the human listeners.



FM radio signals may be transmitted in the following two main ways:


Cable FM


Also known as cable radio, this is basically the use of coaxial cables to relay radio signals. It suffers less interference and is also generally less vulnerable to the effects of harsh environmental conditions. It is however limited in scope/penetration as it requires a direct physical connection between a station and a receiver.


Terrestrial FM


This is the act of relaying radio signals by use of electromagnetic waves through space. This form of transmission does not require a physical connection and thus has a very wide range/geographical reach. It is however very prone to interference and external weather conditions.




The subject matter of radio transmission is pretty broad such that it could not at all be completely exhausted. The onus is upon all and sundry to conduct further research in order to familiarize themselves with all that the entire field entails.

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